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Citing Sources

What's Included in this Guide?

Miscellaneous Examples:

Guides & Sample Papers

The OWL at Purdue provides resources that may useful for writing projects & citation help.

Click here for a full-length self-paced online tutorial from the APA's website.

Publication Manual

Copies of the Publication Manual are found in the reference and check out collections of the Philadelphia Campus Library and the Newtown LRC.

Choose a Research Guide

Personal Communications

  • Personal communications can include interviews, phone calls, letters, emails, and memos that cannot be located anywhere else. They are cited in the paper's text but not in the reference list as they are generally considered "non-recoverable data" (because another researcher couldn't easily locate the information).
  • Cite the person's initials, surname, and the date of communication; it is not necessary to indicate the type of communication.
  • You may want to verify your professor's preference in this matter.

K. K. Ruppel (personal communication, August 7, 2017)... a memo to staff (D. J. Slowik, personal communication, August 7, 2018)

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