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Citing Sources

Guides & Sample Papers

The OWL at Purdue provides resources that may useful for writing projects & citation help.

Click here for a full-length self-paced online tutorial from the APA's website.

Publication Manual

Copies of the Publication Manual are found in the reference and check out collections of the Philadelphia Campus Library and the Newtown LRC.

Choose a Research Guide

Database & Online Articles: General guidelines

Journals, magazines, and newspapers (known as periodicals) are published at regular times throughout the year. Some journals may be published only several times a year (several issues throughout the year equaling one annual volume). Magazines and newspapers may be published monthly, weekly, or daily.

Articles retrieved from Research Databases are cited the same as print articles.  Articles retrieved from websites may require special considerations. (See examples below.)

The following information identifies where the article can be found. The exact components to be included in your citation will vary depending on whether you are citing a journal article, magazine article, or newspaper article.

  • Authors' names
  • Date of publication
  • Title of the Article
  • Name of the Periodical (Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper)
  • Volume number
  • Issue number (only include if each issue starts with page 1: see example)
  • Page numbers/page range
  • DOI number (if available) or in some cases, the URL

Select an example from the list on the left. Does your article have a DOI number?

Special Formatting for Articles

Below are special considerations for formatting periodical references.

  • Include authors' last names and both initials. Do not write out authors' first names.
  • List all authors in the same order listed on the article (up to seven authors.) See example of an article with eight or more authors.
  • Do not put article in quotes.
  • CAPITALIZE only the first letter of the first word of the article title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
  • CAPITALIZE significant journal title words.
  • Italicize periodical titles and volume number.
  • Do not use the abbreviation "v." or "vol." before the volume number.
  • Do not include issue number unless the issue starts on page 1. (see example) If including issue number, do not use abbreviation "n." or "no."
  • Only use the abbreviation "pp." for page numbers when citing newspaper articles.
  • MUST include DOI number if available, even if the article is photocopied or printed.

Journals & Issue Numbers

Do not include issue numbers if each issue begins page numbering where the previous issue ended. For example:

  • Volume 114, Issue 1: pp. 1-69
  • Volume 114, Issue 2: pp. 70-146
  • Volume 114, Issue 3: pp. 147-224

Hartley, S. L., & MacLean W. E., Jr. (2009). Depression in adults with mild intellectual disability: Role of stress, attributions, and

     coping. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114, 147-160. doi:10.1352/1944-7588-114.3.147

If each issue begins page numbering with page 1, then include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. For example:

  • Volume 109, Issue 1: pp. 1-88
  • Volume 109, Issue 2: pp. 1-88
  • Volume 109, Issue 3: pp. 1-80

Schwarz, J. K. (2009). Stopping eating and drinking. American Journal of Nursing, 109(9), 52-61.

     doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000360314.69620.43

Journal Article with DOI Number (Research Databases)

Elion, A. A., Wang, K. T., Slaney, R. B., & French, B. H. (2012). Perfectionism in African American

     students: Relationship to racial identity, GPA, self-esteem, and depression. (2012). Cultural

     Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18, 118-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026491

 

Journal Article with No DOI Number (Research Databases)

Nunez, A. (2009). Latino students' transitions to college: A social and intercultural capital perspective. Harvard Educational

     Review, 79, 22-48.

Journal Article - Each Issue Starts with Page 1

Schwarz, J. K. (2009). Stopping eating and drinking. American Journal of Nursing, 109(9), 52-61.

     doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000360314.69620.43

Article with Up to 7 Authors

  • List all authors in the same order listed on the article (up to seven authors.)
  • Include authors' last names and initials. (Last name, Initials). Do not write out authors' first names.
  • Separate authors with commas. Separate last author in the list with an "&".

De Angelis, G., Murthy, A., Beyersmann, J., & Harbarth, S. (2010). Estimating the impact of healthcare-associated infections

     on length of stay and costs: Excess costs of healthcare-associated infection. Clinical Microbiology & Infection,

     16, 1729-1735. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03332.x

Article with 8 or More Authors

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points/periods (...), and then the last author.
  • Include authors' last names and initials. (Last name, Initials). Do not write out authors' first names.
  • Separate authors with commas. Do NOT separate last author in the list with an "&".

Nathan, P. C., Ness, K. K., Mahoney, M. C., Li, Z., Hudson, M. M., Ford, J. S., . . . Oeffinger, K. C. (2010). Screening

     and surveillance for second malignant neoplasms in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the

     childhood cancer survivor study. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 153, 442-51. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-153-7-201010050-00007

Journal Article from Website

  • If no DOI number is available, include the URL of the journal's homepage at the end of the citation.
  • If each issue does not start with page 1, do not include issue number. (See example.)

Kim, A. (2009). Graphic grown up: Graphic novel titles for the new (adult) reader. Library Journal, 134(13), 20-22. Retrieved from

     http://www.libraryjournal.com

Magazine Article (Research Databases)

  • Include the complete date of publication.
  • Only include the issue number if each issue starts with page 1. (See example)
  • If no DOI number is available, simply do not include it in the citation.

Scherer, M. (2009, August 17). Inside the fight against a flu pandemic. Time, 174(6), 24-29.

Magazine Article from Website

  • Include the complete date of publication.
  • Only include the issue number if each issue starts with page 1. (See example.)
  • If no DOI number is available, include the URL of the magazine's homepage.

Scherer, M. (2009, August 17). Inside the fight against a flu pandemic. Time, 174(6), 24-29. Retrieved from http://www.time.com

Newspaper Article (Research Databases)

  • Include the complete date of publication.
  • If an article runs on discontinuous pages, separate by commas. For example: A1, A2-4.
  • If no DOI number is available, simply do not include it in the citation.

Kellman L. (2009, August 27). Kennedy's death leaves Senate no dealmaker. Bucks County Courier Times, pp. A1, A4.

Newspaper Article from Website

  • Include the complete date of publication.
  • If no DOI number is available, include the URL of the newspaper's homepage

Snyder, S. (2009, July 28). PSSA results released early amid budget negotiations. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved from

     http://www.phillynews.com/Inquirer

Newspaper Article with No Author

  • If no author is listed, start the entry with the first significant word of the article title.
  • This newspaper article would be listed in the Reference List under "C".

The cuts the Pentagon missed. (2011, February 20). The New York Times, pp. 9.

ERIC Documents (Research Databases)

ERIC is a repository of papers, conference proceedings, teaching guides, informally published works, and more. Holy Family’s subscription to ERIC also includes selected full text of journal articles. To cite an ERIC journal article (an item with an EJ number) refer to the examples for periodicals.

Document retrieved from Holy Family's ERIC database:

        Rudner, L. (2001). How many people search the ERIC database each day? Retrieved from

                ERIC database. (ED458292)

ERIC Documents (obtained from the ERIC website)

ERIC is a repository of papers, conference proceedings, teaching guides, informally published works, and more. Holy Family’s subscription to ERIC also includes selected full text of journal articles. To cite an ERIC journal article (an item with an EJ number) refer to the examples for periodicals.

Document retrieved directly from the ERIC website (and NOT Holy Family's subscription to the ERIC database):

  • Include the document type in brackets if available:

Comings, J., & Soricone, L. (2007). Adult literacy research: Opportunities and challenges [Monograph].

     Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/

Archived Documents - JSTOR

  • In addition to including current articles, JSTOR also functions as a digital archive and includes discontinued journals.
  • End a reference with a URL of the archive if the journal is not easily located elsewhere and/or if there is no DOI number.
  • Check with your instructor for clarification.

Fripp, C. B. (1839). Statistics of the city of New York. Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 2, 1-25. Retrieved from

     http://www.jstor.org

Cochrane Reviews

 The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases containing quality information to assist healthcare professionals in making evidence-based decisions. Reviews and protocols, healthcare trials, technology assessments, and economic evaluations are included. This example is for citing Cochrane Reviews only. To cite other sources from the Cochrane Library, please check with a librarian or your faculty member. 

  • Information for citing the review can be found on the "landing page" of the review. The landing page lists the abstract (summary) of the review and includes links to the full text of the review.
  • Cite Cochrane Reviews as you would cite a journal article. APA indicates that the Cochrane Database is like an online journal, so italicize the name.
  • Use the year of publication as the volume number but also include it as the volume
  • Include the issue number since each "issue" starts on page 1
  • Include the page numbers of the full review

Neal, N., & Barton Wright, P. (2003). Validation therapy for dementia. Cochrane Database of

     Systematic Reviews, 2003(3), 1-30. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001394

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