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Citing Sources

What's Included in this Guide


 The Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide  by the Chicago Manual of Style Online provides some brief information and examples of this form of citation. 

The OWL at Purdue provides resources that may useful for writing projects & citation help in Chicago Style. 

You can also find information about Chicago Style at the University of Wisconsin - Madison Writing Center. 

Style Guides

Copies of The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) and A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago Style for students and researchers (8th edition) are found in the reference and check out collections of the Library, as well as the reference section of the Newtown LRC.

Chicago Style: Bibliography

The purpose of the bibliography is to provide an alphabetical (by author) list of sources cited in the text of your paper. 

Setting up the bibliography:

  • The bibliography is included at the end of your paper and should have a page number, accordingly.
  • Start the bibliography on a new page after the paper's text and endnotes (if any). Center the word Bibliography at the top of the page.
  • Place a double space between the title Bibliography and the first entry.
  • Single space all entries but double space between entries. 
  • Start the first line of an entry flush against the left margin, and indent subsequent lines five spaces or one tab.

Bibliographic Entries:

  • Do not use entry numbers in a bibliography. Instead, alphabetize all sources by author's last name. DO NOT organize a bibliography by type of source.
  • List authors in the order they appear on the publication, using initials or middle names as they are shown.
  • List the FIRST author's last name first. For example: Ruppel, Katherine K.
  • Subsequent authors in a multi-author entry are listed by first name, middle initial (or name), last name. 
  • Use and between author's names, not an ampersand (&).
  • If the source does not have an author, start with the title of the work.
  • Titles are listed in "headline style" - that is, capitalize all important words.
  • Italicize titles of larger works (book and journal titles).
  • Enclosed titles of smaller works, such as "chapters" or "journal article titles," in double quotations. 
  • Don't enclose publication facts in parenthesis.
  • If the city of publication is well-known, it is not necessary to list the two letter state abbreviation in the publishing information.
  • Separate elements in an entry with periods, not commas.
  • Generally, do not include personal communications in a bibliography. Personal communications such as conversations, emails, letters, text messages, are generally included in the Notes. For more information, see Miscellaneous Sources.

There are many more little details that are important when creating entries in a bibliography. For specific examples, click on the pull down menu under the Citing Sources: Chicago Style tab. 

Sample Bibliography

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University provides much information about the format of a paper's bibliography. Scroll down the page at the link below to see a sample bibliography.

Where Do I Find Examples?

For specific examples, click on the pull down menu under the Citing Sources: Chicago Style tab. The pages include examples for both formatting foot- or endnotes as well as the bibliography.

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