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Citing Sources


Border Television (Producer). (1996). Brain power [DVD]. United States: Lucerne Media.

  • List the primary contributors in the author position followed by the year of publication. Note the contributor's role (how they contributed) in parentheses after each name. (Example: Director, Producer, etc.)
  • Include the title in italics.
  • Include a description of the item's format in square brackets [DVD].
  • Include the country of origin followed by the studio name.

Video - Counseling in Therapy Streaming Video

Microtraining Associates (Producer). (2000). Gazda on groups: Group counseling [Streaming video].

     Retrieved from Counseling and Therapy in Video: Classic database.


Because this video is available from a limited source, indicate the database name per the APA Style Blog

YouTube Video (2016, December 8). How to spot fake news [Video file]. Retrieved


The APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources (2012) indicates the YouTube video title should be in italics (p. 28).


Wood, M. (Host). (2018, July 20). Facebook, it might be time to face facts: You're a  publisher [Audio podcast]. 

     Retrieved from

  • Include the author’s role such as (Producer) after the name
  • According to APA, the site’s URL instead of the complete URL should be used as the direct URL might change over time.
  • Check with your faculty member’s preference about this topic!

PowerPoint on Canvas

APA’s rules for citing PowerPoints depend on your reading audience and how easily others can retrieve that source.  It is best to check with the instructor about his or her preference for citation when citing a PowerPoint your instructor created and posted on Canvas. The following guidelines are culled from the APA Style Blog.

Technically, according to the APA Style Guide for Electronic Resources (2012, p. 31), if your instructor created the PowerPoint and it is ONLY available from your instructor (posted on Canvas or shown in class), it is considered “non-recoverable”; therefore, you would cite the PowerPoint in the text of your paper but not in the references. You would cite in text only as in this example:

    According to the lecture on infections, (A. Teacher, personal communication, August 28, 2018)…

It is reasonable to assume, however, that the “audience” of your paper is the instructor and possibly your classmates. Since they DO have access to the PowerPoint, especially if it is posted on Canvas, it is retrievable by your reader. In that case, you could cite the PowerPoint in your references as:

Geary, D. (2018). Fake news: What it means to you [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from


PowerPoint on the Web

Geary, D. (2018). Fake news: What it means to you [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

     Friendly University website: https://courses/325/pages/fakenews?module_item_id=123123

If the university or organization name is not part of the URL, include the name as part of the retrieval statement.


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