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Citing Sources

General Elements to Include

WEBPAGES, WEB SITES and other Electronic Media

  • Creator of the webpage (if no author is given, begin with the title)
  • “Title of the webpage”
  • Title of the overall Web site
  • Publisher or sponsor of Web site
  • Date of publication if available (if not available, do not use n.d.)
  • Web address (minus the http:// or https://)
  • Date of access 

Entire Web Site

Smith, Gerry. Citing Sources. Any University. 29 Aug. 2017,

     Accessed 9 Sept. 2017.

A Page on a Web Site

“Infographic: Benefits of Language Learning.” Modern Language Association,

     Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.



  • Writer's name
  • “Title of message” (from subject line)
  • Description of the email (including the recipient's name)
  • Date the message was sent

Ruppel, Kathy. "Library Hours on Sundays." Received by Laura McNamara, 12 Dec. 2016.



  • Writer's name
  • If an author's username differs significantly from their account name include it in square brackets after their name
  • “complete text of Tweet”
  • Date and time of Tweet
  • Url


Ward, Linda [@kruppel]. "Library is open 1-8 on Sundays." Twitter, 10 Sept. 2017, 12:30 p.m.,

Faculty Files from Canvas

One should treat Canvas as the Container for the file*. It might also be helpful to include the type of file (Example: Microsoft PowerPoint file, PDF file) as a Supplemental Element placed at the end of your reference. Check with your faculty to see if they want additional information included such as course name, date. etc.‚Äč

*It should be noted though that not all files on Canvas should be cited this way. If for instance the link merely goes to a resource that has been produced elsewhere such as an issue in a journal in that case the journal is the Container. Typically, Canvas materials can be Containers only if the materials began as classroom materials created by faculty. 

Avellino, Denise. “Welcome to Citations!” Canvas, 2016. Microsoft PowerPoint file.

Video from YouTube (or other Web site):

After YouTube or web site name, include who or which organization uploaded the video if available

“Hurricane Irma Path and Latest on Category 5 Storm.” YouTube, uploaded by ABC News,

     5 Sept. 2017, Accessed 6 Sept. 2017.


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